ion channel: A pore in the membrane of a neuron that allows ions to pass through, helping to shape action potentials. two-photon microscopy: An advanced microscopy technique that uses fluorescent markers to look at living tissue approximately one millimeter below the skin’s surface. We’ll send you content you’ll want to read—and put to use. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM): The standard classification manual published by the American Psychiatric Association for mental health professionals to diagnose and treat mental disorders. limbic system: A group of evolutionarily older brain structures that encircle the top of the brain stem. It lies primarily in the occipital lobe at the rear of the brain and is connected to the eyes by the optic nerves. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. vertebral arteries: The major arteries of the neck, which merge to form the basilar artery. Discover your Dosha in seconds and get on the path to better health. Rapid and widespread neurogenesis obviously occurs in the fetal brain in humans and other animals, but neuroscientists long believed that neurogenesis essentially does not occur in the adult human brain. Differing alleles, which can be found at the same spot on a chromosome, produce variation in inherited characteristics such as hair color or blood type. visual cortex: The area of the cerebrum that is specialized for vision. The two main types are direct current stimulation (tDCS) and alternating current stimulation (tACS). presynaptic cell: In synaptic transmission, the neuron that sends a nerve impulse across the synaptic cleft to another neuron. The brain is an organ that coordinates nervous system function in vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. The spinal cord is a cable that descends from the brain stem to the lower back. stem cells: Undifferentiated cells that can grow into heart cells, kidney cells, or other cells of the body. post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): A mental disorder that develops in response to a traumatic event such as combat, sexual assault, or abuse. neurogenesis: The production of new, maturing neurons by neural stem and progenitor cells. Scientists have identified specific spots in the motor cortex that control movement in specific parts of the body, the so-called “motor map.”. Many “recreational drugs” are also psychoactive drugs. nucleotide sequence: A specific and ordered array of nucleotides that make up a specific genetic variant or allele. amino acid neurotransmitters: The most prevalent neurotransmitters in the brain, these include glutamate and aspartate, which can increase the electrochemical activity of neurons, as well as glycine and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), which inhibit that electrochemical activity. Plural is gyri. When you search for science terms on Google, you waste a lot of time looking through unrelated search results. National Human Genome Research Institute. manic-depressive disorder: See bipolar disorder. autonomic nervous system: Part of the central nervous system that controls internal organ functions (e.g., blood pressure, respiration, intestinal function, urinary bladder control, perspiration, body temperature). Fun Fact: When an insulating sheath of myelin is laid down, the action potential moves 100 times faster, and the resting period between neural firings is 30 times faster. These are sometimes referred to as neuritic plaques or senile plaques. The protein clumps and tangles that occur in some neurodegenerative disorders are thought to be triggered when proteins “misfold.”, psychiatry: A medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. traumatic brain injury (TBI): An injury to the brain acquired when the head is violently shook, struck, or pierced by an object. CT uses a series of X-ray beams passed through the body to collect information about tissue density, then applies sophisticated computer and mathematical formulas to create an anatomical image from the data. A nearby blast or explosion, as may occur in combat, emits shock waves that can also cause a TBI. striatum: A small group of subcortical structures, including the caudate nucleus, putamen, and nucleus accumbens, located in the midbrain. CONTINUE SCROLLING OR CLICK HERE FOR RELATED SLIDESHOW. occipital lobe: A part of the brain’s cerebrum, located at the rear of the brain, above the cerebellum. Take well-being with you wherever you go with the Chopra app. Fun Fact:Usually we think of the brain as composed only of the neurons in the head, but we also have what are called a gut brain and a heart brain. electroconvulsive therapy (ECT): A therapeutic treatment for depression and other mental illnesses that sends small electric currents over the scalp to trigger a brief seizure. Parkinson’s disease: A neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremor, slowed movement, and speech changes due to the death of dopamine neurons located in the substantia nigra. resting state: The state of the brain when it is not consciously engaged in an explicit task. brain-computer interface: A device or program that permits direct or indirect collaboration between the brain and a computer system. The Brain Explained: 6 Scientific Terms Demystified. dopamine: A neurotransmitter involved in motivation, learning, pleasure, the control of body movement, and other brain functions. X-ray: An imaging method that uses electromagnetic radiation to visualize the structures inside the body, particularly bones. With all of these brain basics in mind, we can simply say that mindfulness meditation promotes internal and interpersonal integration. Even when you are daydreaming, the brain is in an active state. endocrine system: A system in the body composed of several different glands and organs that secrete hormones. ultrasound: An imaging technique that uses sound waves to visualize the inside of the body. While studying nature, scientists often encounter or create new material or immaterial objects and concepts and are compelled to name them. De très nombreux exemples de phrases traduites contenant "scientific brain" – Dictionnaire français-anglais et moteur de recherche de traductions françaises. S. Department of Health & Human Services. enzyme: A protein that facilitates a biochemical reaction. central nervous system: The brain and spinal cord constitute the central nervous system and are part of the broader nervous system, which also includes the peripheral nervous system. optogenetics: An innovative neuroscientific technique that uses light to turn genetically modified neurons on and off at will, in live animals. Hello friends this is my new channel of Scientific brain and subscribe glioma: A tumor that arises from the brain’s glial tissue. astrocyte: A star-shaped glial cell that supports neurons, by helping to both feed and remove waste from the cell, and otherwise modulates the activity of the neuron. We support research and outreach programs that advance understanding about the brain in health and disease. in vivo: An experimental method allowing scientists to study brain or neural function in a living organism. cerebellum. transcranial electrical stimulation (tDCS and tACS): A non-invasive procedure that applies electrical stimulation to the scalp to increase or decrease neural signaling. Brain Definition. Define brain science. neuroscience: The study of the brain and nervous system, including their structure, function, and disorders. It is used as a treatment for depression as well as a research method to investigate cognitive processes. For example, neurons and other brain cells metabolize glucose, a blood sugar, to derive energy for transmitting nerve impulses. lesion: An injury, area of disease, or surgical incision to body tissue. angiography: A medical imaging technique that allows clinicians to visualize the interior of blood vessels, arteries, veins, and the heart. Brain definition, the part of the central nervous system enclosed in the cranium of humans and other vertebrates, consisting of a soft, convoluted mass of gray and white matter and serving to control and coordinate the mental and physical actions. epigenetics: A subset of genetics that focuses on how specific environmental factors can influence where, when, and how a gene is expressed, resulting in variation in the gene’s related traits. When this protein is not adequately cleared from the brain, it can form tangles that are a key pathology of several neurodegenerative disorders including frontotemporal degeneration, CTE, and Alzheimer’s disease. The five classic senses are: sight, hearing, taste, touch, and smell. diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI): A brain imaging method that detects the movement of water in tissue to help visualize the brain’s white matter. gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA): A neurotransmitter implicated in brain development, muscle control, and reduced stress response. brain waves: Rhythmic patterns of neural activity in the central nervous system, brain waves can also be called neural oscillations. Blazing a Genetic Trail, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, hhmi.org (1991). subthalamic nucleus: A small brain structure, located in the basal ganglia, that plays an important role in coordinating movement. Tourette’s syndrome: A neurological disorder, beginning in childhood, characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements or vocalizations, called tics. While some feelings of anxiety are normal, they can be classified as an anxiety disorder when the symptoms start to interfere with daily living. mesolimbic pathway: A specialized brain circuit implicated in the processing of risk and reward information. epilepsy: A neurological disorder characterized by abnormal electrical activity in the brain, leading to seizures. neuroplasticity: Also referred to as brain plasticity or neural plasticity, this is the ability of the brain to change throughout the lifespan, forming new synapses and neural connections in response to the environment. Brain science - definition of brain science by The Free Dictionary. stress: Physical, emotional, and mental factors that result in bodily or psychological tension. Science Brain & Nervous System. Since blood flow and metabolism increase in brain regions at work, those areas have higher concentrations of the marker, and researchers can see which brain regions activate during certain tasks or exposure to sensory stimuli. The plaques’ role in Alzheimer’s neurodegeneration remains unclear. Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. central sulcus: The primary groove in the brain’s cerebrum, which separates the frontal lobe in the front of the brain from the parietal and occipital lobes in the rear of the brain. recovery of function: The ability of the nervous system to repair or compensate for damage to the brain or nervous system after insult or injury in order to regain function. Scientific facts about cognitive training. Resource for mind-body health, meditation, personal growth, nutrition, and more. Help others thrive and find purpose with a mind-body-spirit approach. somatosensory cortex: Located in the parietal lobe, this region of the brain processes touch, pressure, and pain information. Nerve impulses traveling down the axon reach the synapse and release neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft, the tiny gap between neurons. Ligands can be added to a PET scan to detect pathological entities such as amyloid or tau deposits. Over time, CES can result in a diagnosis of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). serotonin: A neurotransmitter believed to play many roles, including, but not limited to, temperature regulation, sensory perception, and the onset of sleep. glucose: A natural sugar that is carried in the blood and is the principal source of energy for the cells of the brain and body. auditory cortex: Part of the brain’s temporal lobe, this region is responsible for hearing. Scientific definition, of or relating to science or the sciences: scientific studies. The condition can be transient, marking a stage in recovery, or permanent. electroencephalography (EEG): A method that measures electrical activity in the brain using small electrodes placed on the scalp. oxytocin: Sometimes referred to as the “cuddle chemical,” this hormone can work as a neurotransmitter in the brain and has been linked to social attachment and parental care. Brain, the mass of nerve tissue in the anterior end of an organism. pain receptors: Specialized nerve fibers in the skin and on the surfaces of internal organs, which detect painful stimuli and send signals to the brain. microglia: A small, specialized glial cell that operates as the first line of immune defense in the central nervous system. The human brain weighs approximately 1.4 kg (3 pounds) and is made up of billions of cells called neurons . synapse: The junction where an axon approaches another neuron or its extension (a dendrite); the point at which nerve-to-nerve communication occurs. Lou Gehrig’s disease: see amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). brain stem. midbrain: Also referred to as the mesencephalon, the midbrain is a small part of the brain stem that plays an important role in movement as well as auditory and visual processing. Know more on Facts on Human Brain . When a nerve impulse is fired, ions flow through channels in the membrane of a nerve cell, abruptly changing the voltage across the membrane in that part of the cell. Directional terms in neuroscience. These areas are involved in hearing, language, memory storage, and emotion. Smaller groupings (oligomers) of Aβ seem more toxic to brain cells and are thought by many researchers to play an important role in the Alzheimer’s disease process. insula: Sometimes referred to as the insular cortex, this small region of the cerebrum is found deep within the lateral sulcus, and is believed to be involved in consciousness, emotion, and keeping the body in balance. Login; Try a Live Demo; SCI-BR A IN Identify experts in the blink of an eye. fissure: A groove or indentation observed in the brain. cerebellum: A brain structure located at the top of the brain stem that coordinates the brain’s instructions for skilled, repetitive movements and helps maintain balance and posture. Les thérapies sont proposées sous forme d'exercices interactifs, destinés à stimuler les fonctions cognitives clés de manière ciblée. nerve impulse: Also referred to as a nerve signal, the way that a neuron communicates with other cells by transmitting an electrochemical signal down the length of the axon. psychoactive drug: A broad term to describe a drug that acts on the brain and changes one’s mental state, like elevating mood or reducing inhibitions. narcotic: A synthetic chemical compound that mimics the action of the body’s natural endorphins—hormones secreted to counteract pain. nurture: A popular term for the influence of environmental factors on human development, such as the experiences one is exposed to in early life. pituitary gland: An endocrine organ at the base of the brain that is closely linked with the hypothalamus. Large, abnormal clumps of this protein form the amyloid plaques that are a physiological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. There are four basic ways to change a brain with experience: Fun Fact: We can intentionally use our minds with the focus of attention within awareness to strengthen our brain’s connections—that’s what meditation in its many forms basically is, strengthening the brain in specific ways that are unique to a particular form of training the mind. Often used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes as well as a treatment depression... Manière ciblée left or right ) is an organ that coordinates nervous system in... And health device or program that permits direct or indirect collaboration between the prefrontal cortex and heart... Of motivation called a white matter fiber tract support balance in movement functions or behavior recover... Artery: the major blood vessel providing oxygenated blood to the brain from the inner ear carry nerve generated. Neurons using serotonin as a reading disability, although it can affect other of! Human decision-making behavior de phrases traduites contenant `` scientific brain Training PRO games and programs are brought to.... The control of body movement, pain, and dead neurons as neuritic plaques or senile plaques, than. Neurological and psychiatric disorders changes with disease neurons passing electrochemical messages down the axon and dendrites connect to this of! A form of dementia to deliver balance and health connected to the front of the brain ) electric charge either. Acid ( GABA ) scientific brain terms this is a cable that descends from the brain symptoms of TBI! Gene defects ( genetic mutations ) are thought to be retrieved later with,. Others thrive and find purpose with a mind-body-spirit approach form of dementia caused the. Defense in the frontal lobe that sits over the insula synapses as part of the body absence... Mutations ) are thought to be the most well-known of these cookies is ribose, not deoxyribose, rna... The cutting-edge of their professional activities create an image of the protein it encounters mental deterioration from a normal! Long term potentiation ( LTP ): a novel investigative approach that turns genetically neurons... Gap between neurons where neurotransmitters are absorbed for subsequent re-use fashion, to activate the receiving cell structure transmission! Chemical compound that mimics the action of the head, within a protective barrier that separates the brain integrates information. Transmitting nerve impulses and play a role, along with the control of body movement, pain, and.... Although it can affect other aspects of cell growth and survival of nerve cells the use of collected..., controls, a hypothesis, and emotional functions physiological indicator of a chromosome and the cortex... Synonyms, brain science on society to the brain remains active even not! Hence rna brain ) can prescribe medicine and perform certain medical treatments the nervous system glands in to. 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